Doug Michael and Matt Walch
“God told me to strike at Al Qaida and I struck them, and then he instructed me to strike at Saddam, which I did, and now I am determined to solve the problem in the Middle East.” – George W. Bush, as quoted in the Israeli newspaper Haaretz, 6/26/2003.
The Bush family has a long history of shady dealings and involvement in criminal activity. Although it may seem fantastic before examining the evidence, the entire history of the Bush Family is filled with corruption, lies, and associations with tyrants and terrorists through treasonous affairs, going right back to the beginning of the twentieth century.
The events of 9/11, as reported in the mainstream news media, are filled with nothing but contradictions, “coincidences,” outright lies, and fairy tales that cover up what really happened on that dreadful day in America, even though the official story is flimsy at best. As fantastic as these allegations may seem, the amount of information coming forward now through print publications, documentary films, declassified documents and alternative Internet news websites to prove them is simply staggering.
We feel that examining these two scandals would provide a good background into how the Consortium operates through its willing servants and offer some insight into its machinations. We also chose to investigate the background of the people who have told the public what happened on 9/11, and what the consequences should be as a result, or to put it bluntly, which countries should be bombed into oblivion as a result and how many personal freedoms would be destroyed in the process. Both authors have extensively examined the Bush family’s involvement and industry connections including their business partnerships with the Saudi Bin Laden family, Saddam Hussein, Adolph Hitler and the Saudi royal family.
Prescott Bush: 1895-1972
A little known, yet well established fact is that Prescott Bush, the grandfather of the former US President George W. Bush, was deeply involved in treasonous affairs during World War II. Prescott Bush helped to fund Adolph Hitler and the Nazi war machine through the Union Banking Corporation (UBC) and other companies, and this is demonstrably provable, through the National Archives and certain Library of Congress documents.
Prescott Bush was the managing partner of a corporation known as Brown Brothers Harriman, and a director of the New York Union Banking Corporation. On October 20, 1942, the United States government seized the UBC under the Trading with the Enemy Act, due to the Nazi banking interests conducted by Prescott Bush. The largest company funded by the UBC in Germany was German Steel Trust, which was responsible for supplying 1/3-1/2 of all iron and explosives used by the Nazis.
Fritz Thyssen, a German steel entrepreneur, and banker who funded the Nazi’s from the early 1920’s was connected to Brown Brothers Co. from a subsidiary by the name of W.A. Harriman in New York. Brown Brothers and W.A. Harriman & Co. merged on January 1, 1931. During the time that the U.S. government was confiscating UBC documents, Fritz Thyssen admitted to funding Hitler in his famous book, I Paid Hitler. In the same publication, Thyssen also describes his personal relations with Adolph Hitler, Joseph Goebbles and Rudolph Hess. Thyssen’s political contributions and loans to the Nazis far exceeded one-million-dollars, an absolutely staggering amount of money in those days.
Partnered with Bush were: UBC chairman, E. Roland Harriman; director, Ray Morris; director and treasurer, Harold D. Pennington; and the UBC president, Cornelis Lievense, a known functionary for Nazi banking interests in New York City.
On October 28, 1942, the US government also seized the Holland-American Trading Corporation and the Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation, both of which were Nazi fronts run by the UBC. Another company, which was managed by Bush and his father-in-law, George Herbert Walker, was the Silesian-American Corporation, which was also seized under the Trading with the Enemy Act, on Nov. 17, 1942. The Silesian corporation was connected to slave-labor operations at the Auschwitz internment camp in Nazi Germany, and was fundamental in supplying coal to the Nazi war effort.
Fritz Thyssen’s co-owner of the German Steel Trust Corporation was a man by the name of Friedrich Flick, a leading industrialist who contributed huge sums of money to the Nazi party. For his crimes in supplying the Nazis with coal, steel and arms, Flick was indicted in the Nuremberg war trials, and sentenced to seven years in prison. Both Bush and Walker directly supervised the partnership between W.A. Harriman and Freidrich Flick.
In 1924, the UBC was officially formed in the New York City offices of W.A. Harriman & Co. joining with the Thyssen-owned Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart (BHS) in the Netherlands. Prescott Bush was the N.Y. banker who was responsible for controlling the money going back and forth in 1922 from Harriman (UBC) and Thyssen’s German interests. These are the same people that were involved with financially backing the Nazis during World War II and who were still funneling money to help fund Hitler’s war efforts, before the government seizures in 1942.
Prescott Bush was also a director for the Harriman Fifteen Corporation, which was owned primarily by Roland Harriman, the brother of Averell Harriman. The Harriman Fifteen Corporation controlled about one-third of the Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation. Bush was also a director for the Hamburg-American line of ships, which was in part organized by G.W. Bush’s great grandfather, Hebert Walker. The Hamburg-American line was seized on August 28,1942 because it was used to give free passage to Nazi propaganda and propagandists, and had earlier shipped firearms to the Nazi’s private armies to assist in their takeover of Germany. The Hamburg-American line was also a cover for the notorious Nazi controlled, I.G. Farben Corporation. Prescott Bush’s UBC and Brown Brother’s subsidiary companies dealt with eighteen clients that were also seized during WWII under the Trading with the Enemy Act, for conducting business with Nazi controlled corporations.
The New York Times newspaper actually ran a brief story concerning the activities of the New York State Banking Department, in which it mentioned the UBC, but failed to point out the seizure of the UBC due to trading with the enemy. Why has this crucial information escaped the public spotlight and mainstream media for so many years? Perhaps the answer to that question is hinted at in an interview conducted by freelance journalist, John Buchanan, published in the New Hampshire Gazette. Buchanan interviewed John Loftus, a former prosecutor for the U.S. Justice Department’s “Nazi hunting unit.” In the New Hampshire Gazette interview, Loftus was asked: “How do you account for the failure of the media to break this story before the Gazette did?” Loftus replied:
“My feeling is that about 15 years ago, when big corporations started taking over media companies that had been privately owned by families or individuals, we ended up with an over-worked but well-intentioned media without the staff or resources, in light of all the corporate cost-cutting that was done, to look into the really big stories. The real enemy is the multinational corporations who are only interested in profits and choose profits over truth.
Loftus produced documents from the Federal Register, showing clearly that Bush and Harriman companies were seized for trading with the enemy. Following are a few of the vesting order numbers for company seizures:
- Union Banking Corporation: Alien Property Custodian, Vesting Order no. 248; filed, November 6, 1942 11:31a.m; 7 Fed. Reg. 9097 (Nov. 7, 1942)
- Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation: Alien Property Custodian Vesting Order No. 259.
- Holland-American Trading Corporation: Vesting Order Number 261
- Silesian-American Corporation: Alien Property Custodian Vesting Order No. 370
John Foster Dulles was an international attorney for Nazi interests and enterprises heading the Sullivan and Cromwell law firm which represented the UBC and Brown Brothers Harriman. In their astounding expose’ George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography, authors Webster G. Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin point out that:
“John Foster Dulles would later be U.S. Secretary of State, and the great power in the Republican Party of the 1950s. Foster’s friendship and that of his brother Allen (head of the Central Intelligence Agency,) greatly aided Prescott Bush to become the Republican U.S. Senator from Connecticut. And it was to be of inestimable value to George Bush, [the father] in his ascent to the heights of‘covert action government,’ that both of these Dulles brothers were the lawyers for the Bush family’s far-flung enterprise.”
Tarpley and Chaitkin go on:
“Throughout the 1930’s, John Foster Dulles arranged debt restructuring for German firms under a series of decrees issued by Adolph Hitler. In those deals, Dulles struck a balance between the interest owed to selected, larger investors, and the needs of the growing Nazi war-making apparatus for producing tanks, poison gas, etc.”
William E. Dodd, U.S. Ambassador to Germany in 1937 stated: “I have had plenty of opportunity in my post in Berlin to witness how close some of our American ruling families are to the Nazi Regime.” How do businessmen operating within the US, aiding and funding an enemy to the United States, go on to become Senators, Secretaries of State, or CIA Directors? Rather than being tried for treason against the US, these men went on to hold some very prominent positions in government! How is this possible? Why has the media failed to acknowledge this over the past several decades? Why, when both George Bush Sr. and G.W. Bush were campaigning for the presidency of the United States, did their political opponents not use this information? This information comes from the Federal Register; it is documented and proven. Where is the outrage?
George Herbert-Walker Bush
George H.W. Bush, father of George W. Bush, the un-elected former president of the United States , was born June 12th, 1924. He was groomed from the beginning to occupy high positions of power in the US. He has held many prominent titles such as: Chairman of the Republican National Committee (1973-1974); US ambassador to the United Nations (1971-1973, where he defended Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal); US envoy to China, (1974-1975); Director of the CIA; Vice President, and President of the United States. He is also a Freemason, a Bilderberger, and has membership with the CFR and the Trilateral Commission. Father Bush was (and still is) highly involved with the CIA. It is the legal right of every former president to review daily CIA briefings, and George H.W. Bush is one of the few that exercises this right. He was head of the CIA from 1975 to 1977 and has the CIA headquarters compound in Langley, Virginia named after him: The George Bush Center for Intelligence.
Bush got his jump in the CIA on April 17th, 1961, as a top CIA agent, during the failed Bay of Pigs invasion. Interestingly, the top-secret code name for the Bay of Pigs invasion was “Operation Zapata.” Bush’s oil company was called the Zapata Petroleum Corporation, which Bush co-founded in 1953. Zapata was used to coordinate and supply secret missions against the Cuban government prior to the Bay of Pigs invasion. In 1981, when Bush became vice president, all Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings pertaining to Zapata Off-Shore between 1960 and 1966 were destroyed. How convenient.
CIA coordinator, William Buckley, stated that if he exposed what he knew concerning the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Kennedy assassination that: “it would be the biggest scandal ever to rock the nation.” Coincidentally, Buckley was later assassinated in the Middle East.
The Bush family has had several business and political connections, some of which included Saddam Hussein and the Bin Laden family, through a conglomerate defense contractor known as the Carlyle Group, and this is public knowledge. Bush was a CIA operative during the time of the Kennedy assassination, and Allen Dulles, the long time family friend who represented Nazi interests was head of the CIA at the time of the assassination. John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dealey Plaza, Dallas Texas, on November 22, 1963. As a side note, it is worth pointing out that Kennedy, as suggested by many researchers and investigators, including the authors of this thesis, was assassinated because he was threatening to “break up the CIA into a thousand pieces” (as well as his creation of an independent and interest-free form of currency). This of course didn’t sit well with Allen Dulles and the CIA. Dulles, Bush, and later President Gerald Ford, wanted more centralized power, and breaking up the CIA would certainly conflict with that. President Ford helped Bush achieve this centralization of power within the CIA. The New York Times stated that:
“President Ford has centralized more power in the hands of the Director of Central Intelligence [Bush was Director of the CIA during Ford’s presidency] than any had had since the creation of the CIA.”
Ironically, Allen Dulles was appointed to the Warren Commission to investigate the Kennedy assassination. Of course, just like the 9/11 Commission, the Warren Commission’s investigation was a complete whitewash, riddled with nonsense and inconsistencies, and turned up nothing.
Shady dealings with terrorists
Of course the Bush family’s illegal funding of terrorist regimes did not stop with Prescott Bush’s backing of the Nazis, prior to, and during WWII; in fact, it was just beginning. During George H.W. Bush’s tenure as Vice President under Ronald Reagan, the Reagan-Bush Administration wound up surrounded by scandal. The Iran Contra drugs for arms scandal, involved the Reagan Administration illegally trading arms to Iran in exchange for funds to arm the Contras of Nicaragua, to aid in their efforts to overthrow the elected Sandinista government.
In 1985, Robert C. McFarlane, head of the National Security Council (NSC) at the time, engaged in the illegal sales of antitank and antiaircraft missiles to Iran. A portion of some $ 48 million was diverted by the NSC to the Nicaraguan Contras, violating the Boland Amendment, a law that clearly banned all US military aid to the Contras. NSC staff member, Lieutenant-Colonel Oliver North, with the approval of NSC director, Rear Admiral John Poindexter oversaw the monetary transfers.
Both Reagan and Bush Sr. denied all knowledge of the Iran-Contra affair however, the independent Executive Summary concluded that they were both fully aware of the illegal arms sales to Iran and the illegal funding of the Nicaraguan Contra rebels. In fact, a photograph obtained from the government’s own files shows Ronald Reagan meeting with three of the Contra leaders
The Executive Summary also concluded that other members of the Reagan-Bush Administration as well, had full knowledge of these illegal activities. Among them: CIA director, William J Casey; Secretary of defense, Caspar W. Weinberger; and Secretary of State, George P. Shultz, among others. The Executive Summary goes on to state that: “large volumes of highly relevant, contemporaneously created documents were systematically and willfully withheld from investigators by several Reagan administration officials.” You don’t say. I wonder why they’d do that? The Executive Summary goes on: “following the revelations of these operations in October and November of 1986, Reagan Administration officials deliberately deceived the Congress and the public about the level and extent of official knowledge of and support for these operations.”
Well, I guess you can’t blame them; after all, arming terrorist regimes is certainly illegal, and accepting drugs in return as payment is a definite no-no. But then, these men were high-level government officials, and as history has shown us, when people are in high positions in politics in America, they can operate independent of the law and not only get away with this shit, but be highly rewarded for services rendered.
Oliver North’s own diary papers show that there was knowledge of drug running into the Unites States. The National Archives document can be viewed here: http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB2/docs/doc01.pdf
Criminal charges filed in the Iran-Contra debacle included operational crimes, which entailed illegal use of funds, and cover-up crimes including false statements and other investigative obstructions. Of those involved in the Iran-Contra affair many were granted pardons or had their verdict dismissed or reversed. Among them:
- Duane R. Clarridge: indicted on seven counts of perjury and false statements. President George H.W. Bush pardoned Clarridge.
- Robert C. McFarlane: pleaded guilty to four counts of withholding information from Congress. President George H.W. Bush granted McFarlane a pardon.
- Caspar W. Weinberger: indicted on four counts of false statements and perjury. Weinberger was granted a full pardon by President George H.W. Bush before his trial.
- Alan D. Fiers Jr.: pleaded guilty to withholding information from Congress. George H.W. Bush granted him a pardon.
- Clair E. George: convicted of perjury, and giving false statements to Congress, was pardoned by president George H.W. Bush.
- Elliot Abrams: pleaded guilty to withholding information from Congress; pardoned by Bush.
Oliver North, who was convicted of altering and destroying documents, accepting illegal gratuity, and aiding and abetting in obstructing Congress was able to get his conviction reversed on appeal. Rear Admiral John Poindexter was also able to have his conviction reversed on appeal. Poindexter was convicted of conspiracy, making false statements, destruction and removal of records, and obstruction of Congress. Hmm, let’s get this straight: conspiracy, obstruction of a congressional investigation, perjury, misappropriating funds, and illegally funding hostile regimes, and yet, none of these shady characters are even punished for it! What would happen to you or I, if we were involved in these activities? We’d probably be lynched and burned at the stake! But when people serve high positions and the overall agenda, they do not serve time; they are rewarded!
It is a now a matter of public record and public testimony that the CIA was involved in running drugs into the United States during the Iran-Contra affair. Apparently, CIA chartered planes filled with cocaine flew into the Homestead Air Force base in Florida. Colonel Albert Carone testified in a sworn statement, that he had seen Oliver North, on several occasions, make entries into his diary detailing how drug profits were being used to arm the Contras. In one particular entry, Carone stated that North recorded that some $14 million in drug profits was used to arm the Contra rebels. Coincidentally, Colonel Carone was later murdered. North was also indicted for illegally using tax-exempt organizations to raise millions of dollars, which were channeled through corporations and Swiss bank accounts, utilized to conceal and launder monetary transactions. North was named as an un-indicted co-conspirator.
On October 5th 1986, an American cargo plane carrying military supplies to the Contras was shot down by the Nicaraguan military. The sole survivor of the crash, one Eugene Hasenfus stated that he was employed by the CIA.
Government documents also show that Oliver North met with a representative of long-time US intelligence asset, and known drug trafficker, Manuel Noriega. Noriega sought help from the Reagan administration to clean up his image, and in return proposed to help “take care of the Sandinista leadership.” The National archives documents go on to say:
“North tells Poindexter that Noriega can assist with sabotage against the Sandinistas, and suggests paying Noriega a million dollars–from ‘Project Democracy’ funds raised from the sale of U.S. arms to Iran–for the Panamanian leader’s help in destroying Nicaraguan economic installations.”
Rear Admiral John Poindexter authorized North to meet with Noriega, a well-known, big time drug runner who was actually on the payroll of the CIA for over 20 years. The National Archives documents go on:
“Senior officials ignored Fire’s opinion. On September 20, North informed Poindexter via e-mail that ‘Noriega wants to meet me in London’ and that both Elliott Abrams and Secretary of State George Shultz support the initiative. Two days later, Poindexter authorized the North/Noriega meeting.”
National Archives documents: http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB2/nsaebb2.htm#1
The Senate Subcommittee on Narcotics, Terrorism and International Operations, led by Senator John F. Kerry, ( current Secretary of State) conducted an investigation into allegations of Contra drug links. The “Kerry Committee” examined incidents of: “efforts to divert drug money from a counter-narcotics operation to the contra war.” The report conducted by the Senate Subcommittee on Narcotics, Terrorism and International Operations concluded that: “senior U.S. policy makers were not immune to the idea that drug money was a perfect solution to the Contra’s funding problems.” (See National Archives documents). DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency) agents testified in 1988 that Oliver North planned to divert $1.5 million in bribe money offered by the notorious Medellin drug cartel to the Contras, in 1985. Again this information is from the National Security Archives; it is a matter of public record.
The Reagan administration acted to aid Honduran general, José Bueso Rosa, a man who was deeply involved in the Contra operations, and plotted to assassinate Honduran President Roberto Suazo Córdoba. The assassination was to be funded by a $40 million cocaine shipment into the United States, which according to the National Security Archives, was intercepted by the FBI.
Fabio Ernesto Carrasco, a pilot who flew drug runs for major Columbian trafficker, George Morales, testified in 1990, that he had piloted planes loaded with arms for Contras operating in Costa Rica, in 1984, and in 1985. The weapons were offloaded, and then drugs [presumably cocaine] that were packaged in military bags were loaded onto the aircraft for shipments into the United States. Carrasco testified: “I participated in two [aircraft runs] which involved weapons and cocaine at the same time.”
In 1996, a journalist named Gary Webb, published a series of articles for the San Jose Mercury News, in California, detailing the CIA’s involvement with cocaine shipments into the US. Webb exposed how the crack cocaine epidemic exploded in south central Los Angeles, due to CIA complicity in drug importation. In his detailed series, Webb drew from testimony, sworn affidavits, government documents, and court records to make his case in his extraordinary expose.’ Webb points out that a San Francisco drug ring funneled money to an arm of the Contra rebels in Nicaragua, which was operated by the CIA. Ricky Donnell Ross, or “Freeway Rick,” a Los Angeles drug dealer, turned powder cocaine into crack, and supplied gangs of LA with the much more affordable, and potent form of the drug. The enormous profits raised in supplying LA street gangs with the potent, highly addicting form of cocaine, were used to finance the Contra rebels.
Webb exposed that the CIA, FBI, and DEA all had knowledge of the south central Los Angeles crack epidemic, and did nothing about it. Crack was not the only problem that exploded onto the gang scene in south central however; assault weapons also became a major problem. Street gangs were now armed with AR-15’s, automatic Uzis, and other weapons, that were shipped into, and out of Los Angeles. Gang wars erupted for control of the competing crack markets in LA; and so, smaller drug dealers who could not compete, moved to other cities to establish markets where none had existed before. By 1986, the crack epidemic had reached the eastern seaboard, and by 1989, it had become a nationwide epidemic.
The LA Times, Washington Post, and New York Times newspapers all worked in concert to debunk Webb’s extraordinary research, which seems to be the modus operandi of the mainstream media when something contradicts the official story, no matter how much in fact it is based. It seems that any information that does not fall in line with the officially excepted, mainstream consensus, is immediately discounted as “conspiracy theory,” perhaps today more so than ever. In a lecture given in Eugene Oregon, in 1999, Gary Webb stated:
“You can play ‘what If’ games all you like, but it doesn’t change the reality. And the reality is that this CIA-connected drug ring played a very critical role in the early 1980’s in opening up South Central to a crack epidemic that was unmatched in its severity and influence anywhere in the U.S.”
Webb went on:
“One of the things which these newspapers who dissed my story were saying was, we can’t believe that the CIA would know about drug trafficking and let it happen. That this idea that this agency which gets $27 billion a year to tell us what’s going on, and which was so intimately involved with the contras they were writing their press releases for them, they wouldn’t know about this drug trafficking going on under their noses. But the Times and the Post all uncritically reported their claims that the CIA didn’t know what was going on, and that it would never permit its hirelings to do anything like that, as unseemly as drug trafficking. You know, assassinations and bombings and that sort of thing, yeah, they’ll admit to right up front, but drug dealing, no, no, they don’t do that kind of stuff.”
Gary Webb essentially had his career destroyed by discrediting by mainstream media, could not find further work in journalism, and in November, 2004, he was found dead in his California home. Two .38 caliber gunshot wounds to the head had claimed his life, and a Sacramento coroner ruled the death a suicide, as reported in the Sacramento Bee. The coroner’s ruling of a suicide caused by two gunshot wounds caused immediate controversy and speculation as to weather or not Gary Webb was actually murdered. Webb’s series is highly detailed, and we just wanted to make a brief mention of it here, to point out what happens when a journalist acts with courage to deliver the truth.
There still remain many classified documents pertaining to the Iran-Contra scandal, which may only be released under the sole discretion of the attorney general, in accordance with the Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA). The attorney general has the power to block prosecution that requires the declassification of information. Based on the information that has been declassified and is available to the public through the National Archives, it is clear that the Reagan-Bush Administration was complicit in illegal activities, including involvement with drug importation into the United States, and there is so much more that can be said based entirely on the unclassified information. The aforementioned is but a brief synopsis. The Executive Summary concluded that: “high-ranking administration officials violated laws and executive orders in the Iran-Contra matter,” and that: “the policies behind both the Iran and Contra operations were fully reviewed and developed at the highest levels of the Reagan administration.”
The level of hypocrisy is truly staggering. During the whole Iran-Contra affair, Regan’s wife Nancy was touring the country with her “just say no” campaign, a PR stunt aimed at kids to, wait for it…keep them off of drugs! This Stepford wife of a dirty DC criminal was urging kids to just say no, while her husband was involved in a scandal that imported cocaine into the country and gave birth to the crack epidemic in America. You just can’t make this shit up! It would be hysterical if it weren’t so damned tragic.
Operation Just Cause–The Panama Slaughter
On December 20, 1989, President George H.W. Bush ordered a midnight strike on the nation of Panama, in an effort to remove from power, long time CIA asset and indicted drug trafficker, Manuel Noriega. The invasion of Panama was the largest airborne attack at that time since WW II, and 26,000 troops engaged in a brutal three-day onslaught that left much of the nation in utter ruin, primarily poor, densely populated, civilian areas. Prior to the invasion, economic sanctions imposed by the US practically destroyed Panama’s economy.
When Bush became head of the CIA in 1975, he inherited Manuel Noriega as a contact, and Bush increased his pay to over $100,000 a year, despite the fact that the US government was well aware of Noriega’s criminal activities since at least 1972. In fact, the Nixon Administration actually considered assassinating Noriega. In 1983, a US Senate committee concluded that Panama was used as a major operational center for drug running and money laundering. Despite this knowledge, Noriega remained on the CIA payroll, and was heavily involved in providing aid to the Contras. Noriega supplied weapons to Contra bases in Costa Rica, and was involved in business dealings with the CIA, and Israeli arms dealers, in a mutual effort to overthrow the Sandinista government.
In 1984, Noriega stole the Panamanian presidential election from Arnulfo Arias, with the full support of the Regan Administration. Secretary of State, George Shultz was sent to Panama as an envoy to offer US approval of the stolen election, despite Noriega’s illegal use of fraud and violence to secure the election. Prior to the economic sanctions imposed by Washington DC, Noriega hosted peace talks that called for an end to US intervention in Latin American affairs. Noriega’s defiance threatened US interests concerning the Panama Canal. The majority of the canal’s administrative, management responsibilities were due to be turned over to Panama in the year 2000, which would certainly interfere with US interests.
Author Noam Chomsky, in his book What Uncle Sam Really Wants, points out the absurdity of the Bush Administration’s excuse of ousting Noriega because of “human rights violations.” Chomsky explains:
“In 1988, for example, Americas Watch published a report on human rights in Panama, giving an unpleasant picture. But as their reports-and other inquiries-make clear, Noriega’s human rights record was nothing remotely like that of other US clients in the region, and no worse than in the days when Noriega was still a favorite, following orders.”
Chomsky goes on:
“Take Honduras, for example. Although it’s not a murderous terrorist state like El Salvador or Guatemala, human rights abuses were probably worse there than in Panama. In fact, there’s one ClA-trained battalion in Honduras that all by itself had carried out more atrocities than Noriega did. Or consider US-backed dictators like Trujillo in the Dominican Republic, Somoza in Nicaragua, Marcos in the Philippines, Duvalier in Haiti and a host of Central American gangsters through the 1980s. They were all much more brutal than Noriega, but the United States supported them enthusiastically right through decades of horrifying atrocities-as long as the profits were flowing out of their countries and into the US. George Bush’s administration continued to honor Mobutu, Ceausescu and Saddam Hussein, among others, all far worse criminals than Noriega. Suharto of Indonesia, arguably the worst killer of them all, remains a Washington-media ‘moderate.’”
It seems that as long as US corporate interests are satisfied, corrupted American, government leaders will support, indeed sponsor brutal dictatorships, even those guilty of the grossest and most horrific human rights violations. As long as US interests are adhered to, nothing is ever said or done about the appalling treatment of people by their corrupt, totalitarian government leaders. In many cases, the US government actually installs brutal dictators into power, but when they stop serving US interests, their nations are attacked, and unfortunately, it’s always innocent civilians that suffer the most. History is replete with examples of this.
The Bush Administration declared that the Panama invasion claimed the lives of about 254 civilians; however, independent investigations, including analysis conducted by the Central American Human Rights Commission (Codehuca), painted a far different and more disturbing picture than the compliant, mainstream US media. Codehuca concluded that:
- “The US Army used highly sophisticated weapons—some for the first time in combat—against unarmed civilian populations.”
- “The human costs of the invasion are substantially higher than the official figures. Conservative estimates indicate that civilian fatalities were at least 10 times greater than the US figure of 220.”
- “The actual death toll has been obscured through US military practices including: (1) incineration of corpses prior to identification; (2) burial of remains in common graves prior to identification; and (3) US military control of administrative offices of hospitals and morgues, permitting the removal of all registries to US military bases.”
Former Attorney General, Ramsey Clark stated that a “conspiracy of silence” existed regarding the actual number of civilian casualties. He also stated that the Panama invasion was characterized by a “shear, overwhelming use of raw firepower.” Clark further stated:
“It’s really clear that the military action in Panama violates international law, designed to maintain peace, and the laws of the [US] which are designed to keep the [US] out of war and from committing unlawful military aggressions.”
The United Nations condemned the Panama war calling it a “gross violation of international law.” The illegal invasion violated the Geneva Convention, and provisions in the OAS Charter, an international law that condemns the invasion of sovereign nations.
The Panama invasion was not carried out as a means to remove an indicted drug kingpin; Noriega was already known for years to be involved heavily in the drug trade. Operation Just Cause was conducted to remove a US installed, puppet dictator from power that was no longer cooperating with US interests. Mark Cook and Jeff Cohen, in their article “The Media Goes to War: How Television Sold The Panama Invasion,” written for FAIR (Fairness and Accuracy In Reporting), point out that:
“Noriega’s drug links were asserted by US intelligence as early as 1972. In 1976, after US espionage officials proposed that Noriega be dumped because of drugs and double-dealing, then-CIA director George Bush made sure the relationship continued. US intelligence overlooked the drug issue year after year as long as Noriega was an eager ally in US espionage and covert operations, especially those targeted against Nicaragua.”
The Panama deception, an Academy Award winning documentary film, reveals a far different depiction of the events of the Panama invasion, than the US mainstream media has. The documentary, which is loaded with expert testimony, exposes the true horrors committed against the Panamanian people, at the hands of US forces. The film’s narrators claim that in some ways, Panama served as a testing ground for hi-tech weapons that hadn’t been used before, i.e. laser guided missiles, Apache attack helicopters, and the Stealth Bomber.
Twenty-seven targets were attacked during the invasion, most of which were located in heavily populated areas. The city of El Chorrillos, which was shelled for four hours, was one of the most heavily hit targets. Eyewitnesses claimed that civilian areas were deliberately bombed and destroyed, and that troops engaged in the systematic, street-to-street burning of civilian houses. Further eyewitness accounts claimed that unarmed civilians were executed in the streets, and that the US military took elaborate measures to conceal the number of civilian casualties, including bulldozing the dead into mass grave pits, and dumping bodies into the ocean. In the months following the invasion, Panamanians discovered fifteen mass graves found throughout the nation that contained hundreds of bodies, including children, elderly, and people with their hands bound behind their backs, who had suffered gunshot wounds to the back of the head. Dead bodies were found that had been indiscriminately dumped into garbage chutes and dumpsters.
The National Human Rights Commission of Panama interviewed hundreds of people to determine the number of civilian casualties, and concluded that the death toll far exceeded 4,000! Some 18,000 people were forced into detention centers (concentration camps), and it is estimated that approximately 20,000 people were left homeless. Heavily populated villages were bulldozed and destroyed, leaving Panama’s poorest people completely devastated. Hundreds of Panamanians still remain incarcerated without charge or due process. Regarding the Panama invasion, President George H.W. Bush declared that the United States was “defending democracy.” Well George, nothing describes democracy better than: illegally bombing the piss out of civilians, bulldozing impoverished villages, dumping bodies into mass grave pits, leaving tens of thousands homeless, and executing innocent people, does it?
The man installed into the presidency of Panama after the ousting of Noriega, was President Guillermo Endara, an attorney who represented corporations run by Carlos Eleta, a man who was arrested for conspiring to import over a half ton of cocaine per month into the United States! Installed into the vice presidency, was Guillermo Ford, co-owner of the Miami Florida, Dadeland Bank, which was used to launder millions of dollars in drug money, including funds from the notorious Medellin drug cartel. Installed, as the attorney general, was Rogelio Cruz, former director of the First Interamericas Bank, which was shut down in 1985 for drug money laundering. The bank was owned by the Columbian Cali cartel, and was also used to launder dope money for the Medellin cartel. What a trio of characters to install into the government after Noriega was removed eh? The idea that Panama was invaded to aid in the “war on drugs” is patently absurd!
Interestingly, but not surprisingly, the two indictments against Noriega, involved drug charges prior to 1986, when his involvement with the Central Intelligence Agency was at its peak! As usual, the American corporate-controlled, government-regulated mass media engaged in no actual journalism, and supported the Panama invasion as a great victory in the war on drugs. NBC’s Tom Brokaw stated when asked his opinion of what to do about Noriega: “I think you bring him here and you make it a showcase trial in the war on drugs and justice prevails.” Very good Tom, you’ve done your job well. Of course, it has nothing to do with justice prevailing in the war on drugs; it has to do with making an example of a dictator who has refused to cooperate, and replacing him with one that will.
After the US puppet government was installed to replace Noriega, Panama abolished its right to have an army, and the US procured control of the canal. The Oscar nominated, documentary film The Panama deception has been banned in Panama. Nothing truly exemplifies democracy like the censorship of a critically acclaimed documentary film by a government of drug kingpins and money launderers. It’s comforting to see how free Panama is now since the violent removal of one dictator and the replacement of him with another.
It may seem fantastic that world leaders in high positions actually finance dictators into power, and then wage war against them, but this is precisely what has happened and continues to the present. Throughout most of the 1980s, Iran and Iraq were engaged in a bitter war, and by 1984 Iraq was losing. The Reagan/Bush Administration sought to balance the conflict with the intention of locking the two sides into a stalemate, ensuring that neither side would be completely victorious. The Reagan/Bush Whitehouse had already equipped Iran militarily during the Iran Contra affair, and they now needed to find a way to covertly fund Iraq. By funding both sides in a conflict, the financiers can manage the outcome of the war, to their benefit of course, and as is the case with Iraq and Panama, create a situation to justify a future invasion.
The Export/import Bank (Exim) and the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) were utilized to channel money to Iraq through two loan programs managed by the departments of Commerce and Agriculture. Exim and CCC were able to channel billions to Iraq by guaranteeing that the loans were to carry a 100% US payback guarantee. This meant that if Saddam Hussein’s government defaulted on the loans, that the US taxpayers would have to pay the bill. Can you guess what happened? One stipulation of the loan guarantees was that the money was to be used for the purchase of US farming equipment, and products such as grain from American farmers, which of course, it wasn’t.
The loan program began in 1985 and the bank that was used for this scheme was the Italian-owned Banco Nazionale del Lavaro (BNL) which had a branch in Atlanta Georgia, and was represented by Henry Kissinger’s consulting firm, Kissinger Associates. Kissinger (Bilderberg Group) was also on the board of advisors for the BNL. $1 billion a year was loaned to Iraq for five years, and it has been established that at least $2.6 billion of the $5 billion total was used to finance Iraq’s chemical, ballistic missile, and nuclear weapons programs.
In August 1989, FBI and Customs officials raided the BNL, and its records were seized. This presented a problem for the Bush Administration, because if Congress were to find out about the loan scandal, it could have reversed the CCC loan guarantees, which would have left Italy responsible for the $5 billion in loans to Iraq.
In 1990, Iraq’s foreign minister Tariq Aziz was dispatched to Washington to collect on the $1 billion CCC loan due to Iraq for that fiscal year, further complicating matters for the Bush Administration. During this time House Banking Chairman, Henry Gonzales began investigations into the BNL scandal. Despite this, Bush insisted that the $1 billion loan to Iraq be approved. On October 4, 1989 George H.W. Bush signed National Security Directive 26, which ordered all executive branch agencies to further expand trade relations with Iraq, and this was after the BNL raid! Under the cover of NSD 26, the agencies approved the release of the first $400 million in CCC loans to Iraq for fiscal 1990.
Declassified documents from the National Archives show a text message sent to Iraq’s foreign minister Tariq Aziz, from the then Secretary of State James Baker( See National Archive documents ). In the text, Baker tells Aziz that: “the United States seeks a broadened and deepened relationship with Iraq.” Baker further communicated that: “President Bush’s policy is to work to strengthen the relationship between the United States and Iraq whenever possible.” Thirteen months prior to this message being written, the Iraqi government used poison gas to attack Kurdish villages, violating the Geneva Convention.
Interestingly, both authors have debated with people concerning the excuse that Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction in the run up to the Iraq invasion of 2003. Now of course it’s been shown that Iraq did not possess WMD in 2003, and I can’t count the number of times both authors have heard this from the I believe everything I’m told crowd: “well even if Saddam doesn’t have WMD, he gassed his own people.” Isn’t it interesting then, that a year after Hussein’s military used poison gas to attack Kurdish villages, the Bush Administration sought increased trade relations with a brutal dictator? The above media influenced, government approved comment to us shows just how malleable the average person’s thoughts are to what they see/hear on the television, and how most Americans are simply indifferent or unaware of the reality of these matters in our recent history.
Even though the Reagan/Bush Administration was well aware of Iraq’s use of chemical weapons against both Kurdish insurgents, and Iranian forces, and took a public stance against the use of chemical weapons, the loan programs were set up anyway, and billions were funneled to Iraq in CCC and Exim loans managed by the BNL. The National Archives documents state:
“The U.S., which followed developments in the Iran-Iraq war with extraordinary intensity, had intelligence confirming Iran’s accusations, and describing Iraq’s ‘almost daily’ use of chemical weapons concurrent with its policy review and decision to support Iraq in the war. The intelligence indicated that Iraq used chemical weapons against Iranian forces, and, according to a November 1983 memo, against ‘Kurdish insurgents’ as well.”
The Reagan/Bush Administration also supplied tactical information to the Iraqis during the Iran/Iraq war, specifically, satellite imagery, this despite the administration’s official policy of neutrality. Newsweek reported that at the height of the war, the administration also allowed sales to Iraq of computer databases, and components to create biological weapons such as anthrax.
At a Senate hearing, in September 2002, Senator Robert C. Byrd, inquiring about the Newsweek story, asked Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld (Bilderberg Group, CFR, Trilateral Commission) if the US had helped Iraq to acquire the components necessary to help build biological weapons. Rumsfeld stated: “certainly not to my knowledge.” Rumsfeld further claimed: “I have no knowledge of United States companies or government being involved in assisting Iraq develop chemical, biological or nuclear weapons.” This is especially interesting, considering that Rumsfeld was sent to Iraq as an envoy for the Reagan/Bush Administration in 1983, and in 1984, and had personally met with Hussein. In fact, the National Archives database has on record, a photo of Rumsfeld shaking hands with Hussein.
Declassified National Archives documents state that:
“Rumsfeld met with Saddam, and the two discussed regional issues of mutual interest, shared enmity toward Iran and Syria, and the U.S’s efforts to find alternative routes to transport Iraq’s oil; its facilities in the Persian Gulf had been shut down by Iran, and Iran’s ally, Syria, had cut off a pipeline that transported Iraqi oil through its territory. Rumsfeld made no reference to chemical weapons, according to detailed notes on the meeting.”
On November 26, 1983, President Ronald Reagan issued National Security Decision Directive (NSDD) 114, which dealt specifically with US policy towards the Iran/Iraq conflict. This directive reflected the administration’s policies, and it does not even mention the potential capabilities at the time of Iraq developing nuclear and biological weapons. The National Archives documents appear to spell out what the major concerns of the Reagan/Bush Administration were, and they’re certainly not surprising:
“The directive reflects the administration’s priorities: it calls for heightened regional military cooperation to defend oil facilities, and measures to improve U.S. military capabilities in the Persian Gulf, and directs the secretaries of state and defense and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to take appropriate measures to respond to tensions in the area. It states, ‘Because of the real and psychological impact of a curtailment in the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf on the international economic system, we must assure our readiness to deal promptly with actions aimed at disrupting that traffic.’ It does not mention chemical weapons.”
In addition to the $5 billion in CCC/Exim loans, the Reagan/Bush Administration also allowed the sales of dual use technology to Iraq, and allowed the sales of chemicals for use in development of biological weapons to Iraq, both through US and foreign companies. The following is a partial list of US companies that were responsible for supplying equipment for weapons development to Iraq, including equipment for nuclear capabilities, chemical weapons, rocket and missile development, conventional weapons, and military logistics:
- Alcolac International: supplied materials for Iraq’s chemical weapons program. Specifically, Alcolac supplied over 300 tons of thiodiglycol, a component used to make mustard gas.
- Axel Electronics Incorporated: provided $84,000 worth of capacitors, capable of powering firing sets for nuclear weapons.
- American Type Culture Collection: Provided materials for Iraq’s biological weapons program.
- Bechtel: Supplied material for conventional weapons and military logistics. Bechtel was recently awarded a no-bid rebuilding contract in Iraq, starting at $34.6 million, which could rise to as high as $700 million.
- Canberra Industries Incorporated: Supplied electronic and computer equipment to assist in nuclear development.
- Carl Zeiss: Provided $105,000 worth of microcomputers for conventional weapons and logistics.
- Cerberus: Supplied materials used for nuclear development.
- Consarc: Supplied $11 million worth of furnaces used for nuclear and missile development.
- Dupont: Supplied materials to assist in developing nuclear capabilities.
- Eastman Kodak: Supplied material to assist in Iraq’s rocket program.
- EZ Logic Data Systems, Incorporated: Supplied material to assist in Iraq’s rocket program.
- Electronic Associates: Supplied $449,000 worth of hybrid analog computer systems to assist in Iraq’s rocket program.
- Finnigan-MAT-US: Supplied spectrometers for use in Iraq’s nuclear program.
- Hewlett-Packard: Provided over $690,000 worth of technology for Iraq’s nuclear development, rocket program, and conventional weapons.
- Honeywell: Provided $353,000 worth of computer technology for conventional weapons and rocket development.
- International Computer Systems: Supplied material for nuclear and rocket programs.
- Leybold Vacuum Systems: Supplied $1.4 million worth of equipment for Iraq’s nuclear program.
- Rockwell: Supplied roughly $400,000 worth of material for conventional weapons.
- Semetex: Supplied over $5 million worth of material for Iraq’s rocket program.
- Spectra Physics: Supplied $19,000 worth of material for conventional weapons and military logistics.
- Sperry Corp.: Supplied more than $14 million in materials for Iraq’s rocket program and conventional weapons.
- Tektronix: Supplied over $282,000 worth of material for Iraq’s nuclear and rocket programs.
- TI Coating: Supplied $373,000 worth of material for Iraq’s nuclear program and conventional weapons.
- Unisys: Supplied millions of dollars worth of computer equipment used for Iraq’s nuclear program and conventional weapons.
The Department of Commerce approved the sale of $1.5 billion worth of dual-use technologies to Iraq from 1985-1990. During that five-year period, when billions were flowing into Iraq from the US guarantee loan programs through the CCC and Exim, much of which Hussein used to develop his military; some $300 million in aircraft and equipment were transferred to Iraq. Since Saddam defaulted on the CCC/Exim loans, American taxpayers in effect paid to arm Saddam, and then paid for the war against Iraq, once the decision had been made to initiate operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm. Americans also paid dearly with the lives of their children. Despite the relatively low number of US casualties a high percentage of the surviving veterans of Operation Desert Storm suffer from what has been termed “Gulf War Syndrome,” horrific conditions brought on by exposure to depleted uranium. And the Iraqi civilians never stopped paying.
In 1995, Former staff member to the United States Security Council, Howard Teicher, filed an affidavit in connection with a criminal trial that was underway in Miami Florida. Teledyne Industries, a major military contractor, was placed on trial by the Clinton Administration for selling devices/parts used for the construction of cluster bombs, to Carlos Cardoen, a Chilean arms manufacturer, who in turn, shipped finished, functional cluster bombs to Iraq. Two mid-level employees were also brought up on charges in the scandal. Although the Clinton Administration had claimed that they did not find any evidence that US agencies had armed Iraq, Teicher’s affidavit blew the lid on the Reagan and Bush administrations knowledge and collusion in funding Hussein.
Federal prosecutors claimed that Teicher’s affidavit was a lie, and then proceeded to classify it as a “state secret.” The prosecutors were then successful in having Teicher’s testimony blocked by the trial judge in the case, claiming that Teicher’s testimony was irrelevant to the trial! The mainstream media paid little attention to the Teledyne trial. At the time, the media focused its attention on something far more important than the trial implicating two former presidential administrations in highly controversial allegations, and the third being the Clinton Administration, in covering it up, the O.J. Simpson trial. While the major media networks focused on the Simpson trial, only the Miami Herald provided regular coverage of the Teledyne trial.
In his affidavit, Howard Teicher, who served on the National Security Council from 1977-1987 claimed:
- “In June, 1982, President Reagan decided that the United States could not afford to allow Iraq to lose the war to Iran. President Reagan
decided that the United States would do whatever was necessary and legal to prevent Iraq from losing the war with Iran. President Reagan formalized this policy by issuing a National Security Decision Directive [NSDD] to this effect in June 1982. I have personal knowledge of this NSDD because I co-authored the NSDD with another NSC Staff Member, Geoff Kemp. The NSDD, including even its identifying number, is classified.”
- “CIA Director [William] Casey personally spearheaded the effort to ensure that Iraq had sufficient military weapons, ammunition and vehicles to avoid losing the Iran-Iraq war… The United States actively supported the Iraqi war effort by supplying the Iraqis with billions of dollars of credits, by providing U.S. military intelligence and advice to the Iraqis, and by closely monitoring third country arms sales to Iraq to make sure that Iraq had the military weaponry required.”
- “I personally attended meetings in which CIA Director Casey or CIA Deputy Director Gates noted the need for Iraq to have certain weapons such as cluster bombs and anti-armor penetrators in order to stave off the Iranian attacks. When I joined the NSC staff in early 1982, CIA Director Casey was adamant that cluster bombs were a perfect ‘force multiplier’ that would allow the Iraqis to defend against the ‘human waves’ of Iranian attackers. I recorded those comments in the minutes of National Security Planning Group [NSPG] meetings in which Casey or Gates participated.”
- “The CIA, including both CIA Director Casey and Deputy Director Gates, knew of, approved of, and assisted in the sale of non-U.S. origin military weapons, ammunition and vehicles to Iraq.”
- “I traveled with Rumsfeld to Baghdad and was present at the meeting in which Rumsfeld told Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz about Israel‘s offer of assistance. Aziz refused even to accept the Israelis’ letter to Hussein offering assistance, because Aziz told us that he would be executed on the spot by Hussein if he did so.”
- “Under CIA Director Casey and Deputy Director Gates, the CIA made sure that non-U.S. manufacturers manufactured and sold to Iraq the weapons needed by Iraq.”
- “In certain instances where a key component in a weapon was not readily available, the highest levels of the United States government decided to make the component available, directly or indirectly, to Iraq.”
- “The United States approved, assisted and encouraged Egypt‘s
sale of weaponry, munitions and vehicles to Iraq
- “Under CIA Director Casey and Deputy Director Gates, the CIA authorized, approved and assisted Cardoen in the manufacture and sale of cluster bombs and other munitions to Iraq
Teicher also claimed that: “In 1986, President Reagan sent a secret message to Saddam Hussein telling him that Iraq should step up its air war and bombing of Iran. This message was delivered by Vice president Bush who communicated it to Egyptian President Mubarak, who in turn passed the message to Saddam Hussein.” Justice Department officials threatened Teicher with “dire consequences” for coming forward. A court seal was placed on Teicher’s affidavit, but not before a few copies made it outside of the courts, and were subsequently posted on the Internet.
Unable to mount a defense, Teledyne pleaded guilty and agreed to pay a $13 million fine. One of Teledyne’s mid-level employees on trial was convicted of arms trafficking and sentenced to prison. Interestingly, a mid-level employee would never be able to execute arms trading/sales without authorization from the highest levels. But the blame must fall somewhere. When the BNL scandal broke, the entire scam was blamed on the Atlanta branch manager Christopher P. Drogoul, who in no way could have approved of the billions in loans without approval and authorization from much higher levels.
Upon taking office, in 2001, G.W. Bush blocked the legally required release of documents from the Reagan/Bush Administration. Then, after the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington D.C. Bush issued a secrecy order granting former presidents and vice presidents or their surviving family members the right to stop the release of historical records. In effect, this gave George Junior and each president thereafter, control over records covering the Regan/Bush Administrations, as well as records covering his own administration. If those records were freely available to the public and investigators, then people might begin to realize that the current occupation of Iraq is really part of a long-standing agenda to dominate the Middle East, an agenda that G.W.’s father had been instrumental in initiating, just as his grandfather had played a major role in bankrolling Hitler.
In August of 1990, Saddam Hussein began to amass troops for the occupation of Kuwait using military equipment purchased from the billions obtained from CCC loans. Apparently, the Kuwaitis were slant drilling for oil onto Iraqi territory. Prior to the invasion, Saddam Hussein met with US Ambassador April Gillespie who assured him that: “We have no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts, like your border disagreement with Kuwait,” in effect, giving Saddam the green light to advance troops into Kuwait. She went on to say: “James Baker has directed our official spokesmen to emphasize this instruction.”
Madeline Albright (Bilderberg Group, CFR) Secretary of State under the Clinton Administration, claimed in a 60 Minutes interview, that 500,000 dead Iraqi children was “worth it.” Evil’s willing puppet speaks!
The rest is history as what has followed has left Iraq and its people devastated. Following the first invasion of Iraq, economic sanctions were placed on that nation which destroyed the country further. Even needed medicines were not allowed into the country and the sanctions, which weakened Iraq to near desolation, paved the way for the second US led invasion of Iraq under G.W. Bush, to continue the genocide under the orders of his Consortium masters. The attacks of Sept. 11, 2001 were used as an excuse to gain public support for the second invasion of Iraq, even though that country had no connection to the attacks; that was just another lie, as was the lie that US asset Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction. This is how the Consortium operates: it will finance dictators into power, prop up their regimes and then go to war with those regimes at a future time. They must create and fund their own enemy, because if their true enemy (humanity) were ever to wake up and unite, their game would be over in a heartbeat.
Fritz Thyssen, I Paid Hitler (New York, Toronto, Farrar & Rinehart inc. 1941).
Webster G. Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin, George Bush: The Unauthorized biography,
Webster G. Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin, George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography,
The New Hampshire Gazette Vol. 248, No. 2, October 24, 2003, interview can be found at: http://www.nhgazette.com/cgi-bin/NHGstore.cgi?user_action=detail&catalogno=NN_loftus_interview
Vesting orders were instruments used in the seizure of property, assets or interests in property.
Webster G. Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin, George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography
Article: “The Bush Crime Family: Three Generations of Treason.” By Randy Lavello available at: http://www.prisonplanet.com/analysis_lavello_041403_bush.html
The New York Times newspaper, Feb. 18, 1976
This photograph from the national archives is available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/publications/irancontra/icp1.gif
Encyclopedia Britannica, 2001, software version.
The Executive Summary can be found at: http://independence.net/irancontra/
Executive summary: http://independence.net/irancontra/
This document is available at: http://www.webcom.com/pinknoiz/covert/dc6notes.html
David Icke, Alice in Wonderland and the World Trade Center Disaster: Why the official story of 9/11 is a monumental lie, (Bridge of Love Publications, 2002)
Ibid p 40
The Executive Summary
National Archives document can be found at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB2/nsaebb2.htm#1
National Security Archives: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB2/nsaebb2.htm#1
Article: “CIA, Contras and Drugs: Questions on Links Linger,” The Washington Post newspaper, October 31, 1996
See the bibliography for links to Webb’s expose.’
Transcripted from a lecture given by Gary Webb, in Eugene Oregon, 1/16/1999.
Executive summary: http://independence.net/irancontra/
This information is presented in a summary of the Panama invasion by author Noam Chomsky, from his book What Uncle Sam Really Wants, (Odonian Press, 1993). Chomsky’s analysis of the Panama invasion can be found at: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Chomsky/ChomOdon_Panama.html
What Uncle Sam Really Wants, (Odonian Press, 1993). This information is excerpted from the aforementioned summary of the Panama invasion by author Noam Chomsky. Available at: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Chomsky/ChomOdon_Panama.html
Article: “Panama: the News Not Fit to Print,” excerpts from the assessment of the Central American Human Rights Commission: www.worldworks.org/politics/cpowell.htm
Documentary film: The Panama Deception. Excerpts of the film are available at: http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4078.htm
OAS Charter, Article 20.
Article, “The Media Goes to War: How Television Sold The Panama Invasion,” Mark Cook and Jeff Cohen: http://www.chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/panamainv.html
The Panama Deception.
Article, “The Media Goes to War: How Television Sold The Panama Invasion,” Mark Cook and Jeff Cohen: http://www.chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/panamainv.html
NBC news, December 20, 1989.
Stephen Pizzo, “Iraqgate Primer,” Oct. 22,1992. http://deepblade.net/journal/Iraqgate_primer.pdf
National Archives documents, available at: http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB82/index2.htm
Newsweek, Sept. 23, 2002
Robert Parry, “The USA In Bed with Saddam: Missing U.S.-Iraq History” available at: http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:_bFGPVrETQIJ:www.vho.org/aaargh/fran/livres4/USAibwS.pdf+america+in+bed+with+saddam&hl=en&start=3&client=firefox-a
This photo is available through the National Archives at: http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB82/
Robert Parry, “The USA in bed with Saddam,” article available at: http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:_bFGPVrETQIJ:www.vho.org/aaargh/fran/livres4/USAibwS.pdf+america+in+bed+with+saddam&hl=en&start=3&client=firefox-a
Iraqi weapons dossier report. This information comes from the German Press Agency, DPA. According to the DPA, the dossier reporting this information was reduced from 12,000 pages, to 3,000 pages, and implicates the US as being one of Saddam Hussein’s largest suppliers of weapons and materials to develop weapons of mass destruction. DPA also claims that the USA, Russia, China, France and Great Britain are aware of this censorship. The list of US companies that contributed to the supplying of Iraq can be found at: http://www.worldmessenger.20m.com/weapons.html
Numerous sources exist concerning information on the Teledyne trial. The above is from an article published by Robert Parry, for F.A.I.R. entitled: “Iraqgate: Confession and Cover-Up,” available at: http://www.fair.org/extra/9505/iraqgate.html
Robert Parry, “Iraqgate: Confession and Cover-Up,” available at: http://www.fair.org/extra/9505/iraqgate.html
Excerpts from Howard Teicher’s affidavit. The full text of the affidavit is available at: http://www.apfn.org/apfn/iraqgate.htm
Robert Parry, “The USA in bed with Saddam,” article available at: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:_bFGPVrETQIJ:www.vho.org/aaargh/fran/livres4/USAibwS.pdf+america+in+bed+with+saddam&hl=en&start=3&client=firefox-a
Robert Parry, “The USA in bed with Saddam.”
San Francisco Examiner, 11/18/02